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Add to Cart. About Frederick Law Olmsted: Writings on Landscape, Culture, and Society LOA The biggest and best single-volume collection ever published of the fascinating and wide-ranging writings of a vitally important nineteenth century cultural figure whose work continues to shape our world today. Product Details. Inspired by Your Browsing History. Related Articles. Looking for More Great Reads? Download Hi Res. LitFlash The eBooks you want at the lowest prices. Read it Forward Read it first. Saunders married Ellene Politis in , their daughter, Zina Saunders , is an illustrator for magazines and trading cards.
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Lesser, Robert. Fantasy Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe inspired by real world myth and folklore. Its roots are in oral traditions, which became literature and drama. From the twentieth century it has expanded further into various media, including film, graphic novels and video games. Fantasy is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes though these genres overlap. In popular culture, the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form.
In its broadest sense, fantasy consists of works by many writers, artists and musicians from ancient myths and legends to many recent and popular works. Most fantasy uses other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme, or setting. Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these worlds. An identifying trait of fantasy is the author's reliance on imagination to create narrative elements that do not have to rely on history or nature to be coherent; this differs from realistic fiction in that realistic fiction has to attend to the history and natural laws of reality, where fantasy does not.
An author applies his or her imagination to come up with characters and settings that are impossible in reality. Many fantasy authors use real-world mythology as inspiration. For instance, a narrative that takes place in an imagined town in the northeastern United States could be considered realistic fiction as long as the plot and characters are consistent with the history of a region and the natural characteristics that someone, to the northeastern United States expects.
Fantasy has been compared to science fiction and horror because they are the major categories of speculative fiction. Fantasy is distinguished from science fiction by the plausibility of the narrative elements. A science fiction narrative is unlikely, though possible through logical scientific or technological extrapolation , where fantasy narratives do not need to be scientifically possible.
Authors have to rely on the readers' suspension of disbelief, an acceptance of the unbelievable or impossible for the sake of enjoyment, in order to write effective fantasies. Despite both genres' heavy reliance on the supernatural and horror are distinguishable. Horror evokes fear through the protagonists' weaknesses or inability to deal with the antagonists.
Elements of the supernatural and the fantastic were a part of literature from its beginning. Genres of romantic and fantasy literature existed in ancient Egypt ; the Tales of the Court of King Khufu , preserved in the Westcar Papyrus and was written in the middle of the second half of the eighteenth century BC, preserves a mixture of stories with elements of historical fiction and satire. Egyptian funerary texts preserve mythological tales, the most significant of which are the myths of Osiris and his son Horus.
Folk tales with fantastic elements intended for adults were a major genre of ancient Greek literature. The comedies of Aristophanes are filled with fantastic elements his play The Birds, in which an Athenian man builds a city in the clouds with the birds and challenges Zeus's authority. Ovid's Metamorphoses and Apuleius's The Golden Ass are both works that influenced the development of the fantasy genre by taking mythic elements and weaving them into personal accounts. Both works involve complex narratives in which humans beings are transformed into animals or inanimate objects.
Platonic teachings and early Christian theology are major influences on the modern fantasy genre. Plato used allegories to convey many of his teachings, early Christian writers interpreted both the Old and New Testaments as employing parables to relay spiritual truths; this ability to find meaning in a story, not true became the foundation that allowed the modern fantasy genre to develop. The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights , a compilation of many ancient and medieval folk tales.
Various characters from this epic have become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin and Ali Baba. Hindu mythology was an evolution of the earlier Vedic mythology and had many more fantastical stories and characters in the Indian epics; the Panchatantra , for example, used various animal fables and magical tales to illustrate the central Indian principles of political science.
Chinese traditions have been influential in the vein of fantasy known as Chinoiserie , including such writers as Ernest Bramah and Barry Hughart. Beowulf is among the best known of the Nordic tales in the English speaking world, has had deep influence on the fantasy genre. Norse mythology, as found in the Elder Edda and the Younger Edda , includes such figures as Odin and his fellow Aesir , dwarves , elves and giants; these elements have been directly imported into various fantasy works.
The separate folklore of Ireland and Scotland has sometimes been us. Pulp magazine Pulp magazines were inexpensive fiction magazines that were published from to the s.
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The term pulp derives from the cheap wood pulp paper. In contrast, magazines printed on higher-quality paper were called "glossies" or "slicks"; the typical pulp magazine had pages. The pulps gave rise to the term pulp fiction in reference to run-of-the-mill, low-quality literature. Pulps were the successors to the penny dreadfuls, dime novels, short-fiction magazines of the 19th century. Although many respected writers wrote for pulps, the magazines were best known for their lurid and sensational subject matter.
Modern superhero comic books are sometimes considered descendants of "hero pulps"; the first "pulp" was Frank Munsey's revamped Argosy magazine of , with about , words per issue, on pulp paper with untrimmed edges, no illustrations on the cover. The steam-powered printing press had been in widespread use for some time, enabling the boom in dime novels. In six years, Argosy went from a few thousand copies per month to over half a million. Seeing Argosy's success, they launched The Popular Magazine in , which they billed as the "biggest magazine in the world" by virtue of its being two pages longer than Argosy.
Due to differences in page layout however, the magazine had less text than Argosy; the Popular Magazine did introduce color covers to pulp publishing, the magazine began to take off when in the publishers acquired the rights to serialize Ayesha, by H.
Rider Haggard , a sequel to his popular novel She. Howard , Talbot Mundy and Abraham Merritt. In , the cover price rose to 15 cents and 30 pages were added to each issue. Street and Smith's next innovation was the introduction of specialized genre pulps, with each magazine focusing on a particular genre, such as detective stories, etc. At their peak of popularity in the s and s, the most successful pulps could sell up to one million copies per issue. In , Frank Gruber said. Although pulp magazines were an American phenomenon, there were a number of British pulp magazines published between the Edwardian era and World War II.
During the Second World War paper shortages had a serious impact on pulp production, starting a steady rise in costs and the decline of the pulps.
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Beginning with Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine in , pulp magazines began to switch to digest size. In a more affluent post-war America, the price gap compared to slick magazines was far less significant. In the s, men's adventure magazines began to replace the pulp; the liquidation of the American News Company the primary distributor of pulp magazines, has sometimes been taken as marking the end of the "pulp era". All of the few remaining pulp magazines are science fiction or mystery magazines now in formats similar to "digest size", such as Analog Science Fiction and Fact and Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine; the format is still in use for some lengthy serials, like the German science fiction weekly Perry Rhodan.
Over the course of their evolution, there were a huge number of pulp magazine titles. Many titles of course survived only briefly. While the most popular titles were monthly, many were bimonthly and some were quarterly; the collapse of the pulp industry changed the landscape of publishing because pulps were the single largest sales outlet for short stories.
Combined with the decrease in slick magazine fiction markets, writers attempting to support themselves by creating fiction switched to novels and bo.