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Nucleic Acid Switches and Sensors - E-bok - Scott K Silverman () | Bokus
Citations Cited By. This article is cited by publications. Sasha B. Nathan, Chad A. Journal of the American Chemical Society , 35 , DOI: Trevor A. Strategies for Creating Structure-Switching Aptamers.
DNA G-Quadruplex as a Reporter System for Sensor Development
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Nucleic Acid Switches and Sensors / Edition 1
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Sign up for new issue notifications. In the past decade, nanometre-scale pores have been explored as the basis for technologies to analyse and sequence single nucleic acid molecules. Most approaches involve using such a pore to localize single macromolecules and interact with them to garner some information on their composition. Though nanopore sensors cannot yet claim success at deoxyribonucleic acid DNA sequencing, nanopore-based technologies offer one of the most promising approaches to single molecule detection and analysis.
Analysis of externally induced ion current through the pore during its interaction with DNA can provide information about the DNA molecule, including length and base composition. This review focuses on alpha-HL and its applications to single-molecule detection.
Modified alpha-HL and other biological and synthetic pores for macromolecule detection are also discussed, along with a brief summary of relevant theoretical work and numerical modelling of polymer—pore interaction. The opposite side is then contacted with a microfluidic flow system. The contact with the flow system creates channels across which reagents can be passed in solution. This side of the glass sensor chip can be modified in a number of ways, to allow easy attachment of molecules of interest.
Normally it is coated in carboxymethyl dextran or similar compound. The refractive index at the flow side of the chip surface has a direct influence on the behavior of the light reflected off the gold side. Binding to the flow side of the chip has an effect on the refractive index and in this way biological interactions can be measured to a high degree of sensitivity with some sort of energy.
The refractive index of the medium near the surface changes when biomolecules attach to the surface, and the SPR angle varies as a function of this change. Light of a fixed wavelength is reflected off the gold side of the chip at the angle of total internal reflection, and detected inside the instrument.
The angle of incident light is varied in order to match the evanescent wave propagation rate with the propagation rate of the surface plasmon plaritons. Other optical biosensors are mainly based on changes in absorbance or fluorescence of an appropriate indicator compound and do not need a total internal reflection geometry.
For example, a fully operational prototype device detecting casein in milk has been fabricated. The device is based on detecting changes in absorption of a gold layer. Biological biosensors often incorporate a genetically modified form of a native protein or enzyme. The protein is configured to detect a specific analyte and the ensuing signal is read by a detection instrument such as a fluorometer or luminometer. An example of a recently developed biosensor is one for detecting cytosolic concentration of the analyte cAMP cyclic adenosine monophosphate , a second messenger involved in cellular signaling triggered by ligands interacting with receptors on the cell membrane.
Such "assays" are commonly used in drug discovery development by pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. A live-cell biosensor for cAMP can be used in non-lysed cells with the additional advantage of multiple reads to study the kinetics of receptor response. Nanobiosensors use an immobilized bioreceptor probe that is selective for target analyte molecules. Nanomaterials are exquisitely sensitive chemical and biological sensors. Nanoscale materials demonstrate unique properties. Their large surface area to volume ratio can achieve rapid and low cost reactions, using a variety of designs.
Other evanescent wave biosensors have been commercialised using waveguides where the propagation constant through the waveguide is changed by the absorption of molecules to the waveguide surface. One such example, dual polarisation interferometry uses a buried waveguide as a reference against which the change in propagation constant is measured. Other configurations such as the Mach—Zehnder have reference arms lithographically defined on a substrate.
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Higher levels of integration can be achieved using resonator geometries where the resonant frequency of a ring resonator changes when molecules are absorbed. Recently, arrays of many different detector molecules have been applied in so called electronic nose devices, where the pattern of response from the detectors is used to fingerprint a substance. Commercially available glucose monitors rely on amperometric sensing of glucose by means of glucose oxidase , which oxidises glucose producing hydrogen peroxide which is detected by the electrode.
To overcome the limitation of amperometric sensors, a flurry of research is present into novel sensing methods, such as fluorescent glucose biosensors. The interferometric reflectance imaging sensor IRIS is based on the principles of optical interference and consists of a silicon-silicon oxide substrate, standard optics, and low-powered coherent LEDs.
When light is illuminated through a low magnification objective onto the layered silicon-silicon oxide substrate, an interferometric signature is produced. As biomass, which has a similar index of refraction as silicon oxide, accumulates on the substrate surface, a change in the interferometric signature occurs and the change can be correlated to a quantifiable mass.
Daaboul et al.
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Since initial publication, IRIS has been adapted to perform various functions. First, IRIS integrated a fluorescence imaging capability into the interferometric imaging instrument as a potential way to address fluorescence protein microarray variability. Monroe et al. There are several applications of biosensors in food analysis.
In the food industry, optics coated with antibodies are commonly used to detect pathogens and food toxins. Commonly, the light system in these biosensors is fluorescence, since this type of optical measurement can greatly amplify the signal.
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A range of immuno- and ligand-binding assays for the detection and measurement of small molecules such as water-soluble vitamins and chemical contaminants drug residues such as sulfonamides and Beta-agonists have been developed for use on SPR based sensor systems, often adapted from existing ELISA or other immunological assay. These are in widespread use across the food industry. In the future, DNA will find use as a versatile material from which scientists can craft biosensors.
No external monitoring is needed for DNA-based sensing devices. This is a significant advantage. DNA biosensors are complicated mini-machines—consisting of sensing elements, micro lasers, and a signal generator.
At the heart of DNA biosensor function is the fact that two strands of DNA stick to each other by virtue of chemical attractive forces. On such a sensor, only an exact fit—that is, two strands that match up at every nucleotide position—gives rise to a fluorescent signal a glow that is then transmitted to a signal generator. Using biological engineering researchers have created many microbial biosensors. An example is the arsenic biosensor. To detect arsenic they use the Ars operon. Because ozone filters out harmful ultraviolet radiation, the discovery of holes in the ozone layer of the earth's atmosphere has raised concern about how much ultraviolet light reaches the earth's surface.
Of particular concern are the questions of how deeply into sea water ultraviolet radiation penetrates and how it affects marine organisms , especially plankton floating microorganisms and viruses that attack plankton. Plankton form the base of the marine food chains and are believed to affect our planet's temperature and weather by uptake of CO 2 for photosynthesis.
Deneb Karentz, a researcher at the Laboratory of Radio-biology and Environmental Health University of California, San Francisco has devised a simple method for measuring ultraviolet penetration and intensity. Working in the Antarctic Ocean, she submerged to various depths thin plastic bags containing special strains of E.
Bacterial death rates in these bags were compared with rates in unexposed control bags of the same organism. The bacterial "biosensors" revealed constant significant ultraviolet damage at depths of 10 m and frequently at 20 and 30 m.